Brief History of Kathakali is that it is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance, and It is another “story play” genre of art. For example, the Japanese Noh (能) integrates masks, costumes and various props in a dance-based performance, requiring highly trained actors and musicians. These developed in part because of the Gurukul system of its transmission from one generation to the next. Since then it has evolved and improved continuously. [4][28], Of all classical Indian dances, Kathakali has the most elaborate costuming consisting of head dresses, face masks and vividly painted faces. much earlier to the introduction of Raamanaattam. Typically, his four plays are performed on four nights, and they relate to the mythical Hindu love story of Nala and Damayanti. It is presumed that the first complete version of the text was completed between 200 BCE to 200 CE, but some sources mention the timeframe to be around 500 BCE and 500 CE. It is performed by both men and women who dance gracefully with the accompaniment of an instrument known as timki. Belonging to the South-Western coastal state of Kerala, Kathakali is primarily a dance drama form and is extremely colourful with billowing costumes, flowing scarves, ornaments and crowns. Kathakali like all the classical dances of India has evolved over hundreds of years. Emotions are primarily conveyed by stylized gestures while the costumes communicate the nature of the characters in a Noh performance, as in Kathakali. As many as 150 Kathakali dancers created history in a rare performance combining the well-defined 'mudras" of the classical dance-drama with the time-tested 'asanas" of meditation for the first time in the history of the art form. However, Kathakali differs in that it also incorporates movements from ancient Indian martial arts and athletic traditions of South India. Many of these ways are not found in other major Indian classical dance traditions. In both traditions, the performance happens in the front of a huge Kalivilakku with its thick wick sunk in coconut oil, burning with a yellow light. Kathakali is very different from other classical dance forms. The inception of Kalamandalam gave a second life to three major classical dance performing arts of Kerala as Kathakali, Kudiyattam and Mohiniyattam were, by the turn of the 20th century, facing the threat of extinction under various regulations of the colonial authorities. [3], Several ancient Sanskrit texts such as Natya Shastra and Hastha Lakshanadeepika discuss hand gestures or mudras. Kathakali (literally, story play), the spectacular classical dance drama of Kerala based on the guidelines laid by Sage Bharatha's Natya Sastra, the ancient treatise on dance and drama, is over 500 years old. [30] The Sloka part is the metrical verse, written in third person – often entirely in Sanskrit - describing the action part of the choreography. History. Even the great Kathakali dancer Mahakavi Vallathol Narayana Menon founded Kerala Kala Mandalam, who trained to the many disciples. The ancient tradition has been continuing from old tradition to the modern period. All of these three gunas (good, evil, active) are present in everyone and everything, it is the proportion that is different, according to the Hindu worldview. [51] Thodayam is performed behind a curtain and without all the costumes, while Purappadu is performed without the curtain and in full costumes. [11] The kathakali is attributed to sage Bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE,[12][13] but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE. They typically deal with the Mahabarat, the Ramayana and the ancient scriptures known as the Puranas. Kathak is indigenous to northern India and developed under the influence of both Hindu and Muslim cultures. [50], A Kathakalī performance typically starts with artists tuning their instruments and warming up with beats, signalling to the arriving audience that the artists are getting ready and the preparations are on. He requested to Zamorin for the troupe of performers. Know the History of Kathakali Dance: Over 2000 years back, Muni Bharata wrote the Natya Shastra (The Science of Acting), which turned into the academic standard for classical dance, theatre, music, get-ups, make up and the visual arts of India. Elements and aspects of Kathakalī can be found in ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Natya Shastra. History & Culture ; Published 20th January, 2021 ; Context ‘Kalyanasougandhikam’ brought alive the blend of elements unique to a Kathakali play. [3][30] The Pada part contains the dialogue part. Recent productions have adapted stories from other cultures and mythologies, such as those of Miguel de Cervantes,[61] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and William Shakespeare. [40], Thaadi (red) is the code for someone with an evil streak such as Dushasana and Hiranyakashipu. Kathakali Dance (source: pinterest) At the same time, each dance form has its own types of body movements and poses. Some major musical patterns, according to Clifford and Betty, that go with the moods and content of the scene are: Chempada (most common and default that applies to a range of moods, in battles and fights between good and evil, also to conclude a scene); Chempa music (depict tension, dispute, disagreement between lovers or competing ideas); Panchari (for odious, preparatory such as sharpening a sword); Triputa (thought-provoking, scenes involving sages and teachers); Adantha (scenes involving kings or divine beings); Muri Adantha musical style (for comic, light-hearted, or fast-moving scenes involving heroic or anger-driven activity). Modern performances with microphone and speakers sometimes position the vocalists in the back. Kathak uses the stage space more, and does not typically include separate vocalists. Kathakali is based on religious themes. Modern performances are shorter. It is known for its large, elaborate makeup and costumes. [18], The roots of Kathakalī are unclear. Popular belief is that Kathakali is emerged from "Krishananattam", the dance drama on the life and activities of Lord Krishna created by the Zamorin of Calicut. The word "attam" means enactment. ‘Attakatha’ are plays that were historically derived from Hindu epics like ‘Bhagavata Purans’, ‘Mahabharata’ and ‘Ramayana’ which were written in certain format that allows one to determine the dialogue portions that is the Pada part and the action portions that is the Shloka part of the performance. [30] These Attakatha texts grant considerable flexibility to the actors to improvise. [69] The guru provided both the theoretical and practical training to the student, and the disciple would accompany the guru to formal performances. [53] The vocalists not only deliver the lines, but help set the context and express the inner state of the character by modulating their voice. The main point is mudra’s because kakhakali dance form is totally based upon mudra’s. This resulted in Raja of Kottarakkara's writing the Ramanattam, a series of eight plays about Rama. While the other forms remained relatively unknown, Kathakali reached a broad audience and achieved that status of a widely-recognized national treasure. 1, Rosen Publishing, M Innes-Brown and S Chatterjee (1999), The Relevance of the Guna Theory in the Congruence of Eastern Values and Western Management Practice, Journal of Human Values, 5(2), pages 93-102. [44][48], Like many classical Indian arts, Kathakali is choreography as much as it is acting. Kathakali dance form is one of the oldest theater forms in … [42], Yellow is the code for monks, mendicants, and women. [24] The traditional legend states that Kottarakkara Thampuran (also known as Vira Kerala Varma) requested the services of a Krishnanattam troupe, but his request was denied. Ignoring the first phase when it was Ramanattam, Kathakali had its cradle in Vettathunadu. Karma dance of Madhya Pradesh is a traditional folk dance. First comes the Thodayam and Purappadu performances, which are preliminary 'pure' (abstract) dances that emphasize skill and pure motion. [69] Artist families tended to pick promising talent from within their own extended families, sometimes from outside the family, and the new budding artist typically stayed with his guru as a student and treated like a member of the family. [77] In both, costumed men have traditionally performed all the roles including those of women in the play. Kathakali is very different from other classical dance forms. [3] In parallel, vocalists in the background sing rhythmically the play, matching the beats of the orchestra playing, thus unifying the ensemble into a resonant oneness. [33], The performance involves actor-dancers in the front, supported by musicians in the background stage on right (audience's left) and with vocalists in the front of the stage (historically so they could be heard by the audience before the age of microphone and speakers). History. [12][15] The text, states Natalia Lidova, describes the theory of Tāṇḍava dance (Shiva), the theory of rasa, of bhāva, expression, gestures, acting techniques, basic steps, standing postures – all of which are part of Indian classical dances including Kathakali. Mohiniattam or Mohiniyattam is an Indian classical dance form that evolved in the state of Kerala, India, and is counted among the two popular dance arts of the state, the other being Kathakali. He was a devotee of Lord Krishna; who wrote plays known as Krishnatam. The kathakali is attributed to sage Bharata, and its first complete compilation is dated to between 200 BCE and 200 CE, but estimates vary between 500 BCE and 500 CE. [45][46][47] The interplay of these gunas defines the character of someone or something,[45] and the costumes and face colouring in Kathakali often combines the various colour codes to give complexity and depth to the actor-dancers. It has been described as a true representation of the artistic traditions of India and one of the most magnificent theatres of the imagination. [54], Music is central to a Kathakali performance. The repertoire includes a series of performances. Kathakali is a group presentation, in which dancers take various roles in performances traditionally based on themes from Hindu mythology, especially the two epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Koothu, Koodiyattam, Patakam, Ashtapadiyattam, Krishnattam, Thullal, Mohiniattam and Kathankali are the most popular Classical Dances of Kerala. Click Here for kathak Dance Class Schedule & Fee at PAIPA. [55], Over five hundred Kathakalī plays (Aattakatha) exist, most of which were written before the 20th century. [10][39] Pachcha (green) with lips painted brilliant coral red portrays noble characters and sages such as Krishna, Vishnu, Rama, Yudhishthira, Arjuna, Nala and philosopher-kings. There are certain evidences that claim that this form of Indian classical dance is four centuries old. Kathakali evolved from earlier temple art forms in the 17th century, is based on Hinduism and is a highly charged powerful drama that combines devotion, drama, dance, music, costumes and make-up to produce one of the most impressive forms of sacred theatre in the world. And a dilution of a classical art means it is leading towards death." Usually, the themes revolve around the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. [2][3][note 1] Kathakali is a Hindu performance art in the Malayalam-speaking southwestern region of Kerala. James G. Lochtefeld, Guna, in The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: A-M, Vol. Kathakali is based on religious themes. It is believed that Kathakali originated from "Krishnanattam" a dance form dedicated to Lord Krishna life and activities which was created by Zamorian of calicut Sri Manavedan Raja during 1585-1658 AD, Once Kottarakkara Thampuran, the Raja of Kottarakkara who was attracted by Krishnanattam requested the Zamorin for the loan of a troupe of performers. Kathak is indigenous to northern India and developed under the influence of both Hindu and Muslim cultures. A unit of movement of the dance portion of Kathakali are known as kalsams . (2008). For an Indian dancer, costume is almost as crucial as the dance itself to achieving a great performance. Kalyanasougandhikamis a story known for its unique blend of elements that highlight the classicism of Kathakali. The performance of Kathakali was not restricted to sacred temple grounds or palaces, making it accessible to ordinary people. The Kathakali dance has a rich, long tradition, which formed in the 17th century. [9][74] Kathak traditionally has included female actor-dancers, unlike Kathakali which has traditionally been performed by an all-male troupe. [57] The late 17th century Unnayi Variyar, in his short life, produced four plays which are traditionally considered the most expressive of the Kathakali playwrights. What is ‘Kalyanasougandhikam’? [57] These plays are sophisticated literary works, states Zarrilli, and only five authors have written more than two plays. [33] Traditionally, before the advent of electricity, this special large lamp provided light during the night. History of Kathak has been a debatable issue as it was the style which evolved gradually during the course of several centuries, imbibing diverse influences. History of Kathakali. History. [33], The stage is mostly bare, or with a few drama-related items. Kathakali was originated in the 17th century and has its roots in Hindu mythology. Kathak is an ancient performance art that emerged in North India, with roots in traveling bards retelling mythical and spiritual stories through dance-acting. Kathakali is a form of Indian dance-drama. India is a vibrant and rich land of varied cultures, art forms and languages. Way before that, this art form sprung out in the span of 1585 to 1658 AD, from the essence of Krishnanattam that depicted the way of life along with the activities filled in it of Lord Krishna. Three major drums found are Maddalam(barrel-shaped),Chenda(cylindrical drum played with curved sticks) and Idakka ( Idakka , hourglass-shaped drum with muted and melodious notes played when female characters perform). Once the Raja of Kottarakkara who attracted by Krishnanattam. [79][80], Kabuki, another Japanese art form, has similarities to Kathakali. [69] Kathakali schools are now found all over India, as well as in parts of Western Europe and the United States. Know the history of Kathakali dance. The term Kathakali is a combination of two Malayalam words "katha" (meaning story) and "kali"(meaning play). [24], Kathakalī is structured around plays called Attakatha (literally, "enacted story"[3]), written in Sanskritized Malayalam. [60], Kathakalī is still practiced in its Traditional ways and there are experimental plays based on European classics and Shakespeare's plays. Kathakali has a unique combination of literature, music, painting, acting and dance. History of Kathakali. Kathak, one of the main forms of classical dance-drama of India, other major ones being bharata natyam, kathakali, manipuri, kuchipudi, and odissi. Kathakali means 'Story Dance' and it emanated in the 16 th century being inspired from Koodiyattam. [23], Krishnanattam is the likely immediate precursor of Kathakalī, states Zarrilli. [14], The most studied version of the Natya Shastra text consists of about 6000 verses structured into 36 chapters. [28][33][note 2] Typically, all roles are played by male actor-dancers, though in modern performances, women have been welcomed into the Kathakali tradition. [3] A Padam consists of three parts: a Pallavi (refrain), Anupallavi (subrefrain) and Charanam (foot), all of which are set to one of the ancient Ragas (musical mode), based on the mood and context as outlined in ancient Sanskrit texts such as the Natya Shastra. The Jat Jatin dance is a popular folk dance from the Indian state of Bihar. [2][3][5] Kathakalī also differs in that the structure and details of its art form developed in the courts and theatres of Hindu principalities, unlike other classical Indian dances which primarily developed in Hindu temples and monastic schools. It is a stylised art form, the four aspects of abhinaya - angika, aharya,vachika, satvika and the nritta, nritya and natya aspects are combined perfectly. The Shlokas are in Sanskrit and describe the action in the scene, while Padams are dialogues in Malayalam (Sanskritized) for the actors to interpret and play. History (origin) Its roots are ... How to Choreograph kathakali. [11][12][16] Dance and performance arts, states this ancient Hindu text,[17] are a form of expression of spiritual ideas, virtues and the essence of scriptures. History of Kathakali: of art, agency, and aesthetics 16 Safwan Amir moves through a linear history of Kathakali, dealing with its in- ception, influences, patronage and participation. [63], [67] Kathakali has traditionally been an art that has continued from one generation to the next through a guru-disciples (gurukkula[68]) based training system. The performance was restricted … [65] It is traditionally attributed to Nalanunni, under the patronage of Utram Tirunal Maharaja (1815-1861). [43], The character types, states Zarrilli, reflect the Guṇa theory of personalities in the ancient Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy. History of Kathakali Dance. Kathakali is a traditional, classical dance hailing from the South Indian state of Kerala. [6] In modern compositions, Indian Kathakali troupes have included women artists,[4] as well as adapted Western stories and plays such as those by Shakespeare. III. [44] There are three Guṇas, according to this philosophy, that have always been and continue to be present in all things and beings in the world. [51], The entrance of characters onto the Kathakalī stage can be varied. 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