See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. As a result, they’re missing a testament to God’s steadfastness over the centuries. The ancient New Testament Church taught the pure, simple gospel of Christ. The Apostolic Era and the Papacy And so I say to you, you are Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the netherworld shall not prevail against it. Immanuel Kant expressed the motto of theEnlightenment well. From its establishment as recorded in Acts 2 to the end of its recorded history in the New Testament, the church enjoyed phenomenal growth. The History of Christianity: An Overview. A Study in Church History Gene Taylor-6-B. Shortly after the creation of the church, many Gentiles (non-Jews) embraced Christianity.Early Christians considered it their calling to spread and teach the gospel. The writer is unabashedly Protestant and this comes through in the book, but he presents the material without denigrating the Catholic or Orthodox churches. According to the theory of Pentarchy, the early Catholic Church was organized under the three patriarchs of Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, later to which were added the patriarchs of Constantinople and Jerusalem. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. The Bishop of Rome was at the time recognized as first among them, as is stated, in canon 3 of the First Council of Constantinople (381)—many believe "first" to mean here first among equals—and doctrinal or disputation was often referred to Rome, by St Athanasius against the decision of the Council of Tyre (335), Pope Julius I, who said these appeals were customary, annulled the action of the council and restored Athanasius and Marcellus of Ancyra to their sees. It involves the penitent's contrition for sin (without which the rite does not have its effect), confession (which in highly exceptional circumstances can take the form of a corporate general confession) to a minister who has the faculty to exercise the power to absolve the penitent, and absolution by the minister. If Catholicism extended to cover all who consider themselves spiritual descendants of the Apostles, a search for beliefs and practices that distinguish it from other forms of Christianity would be meaningless. Important figures: 1… All rights reserved. The 431 Council of Ephesus, the Third Ecumenical Council, was concerned with Nestorianism, which gave priority to the distinction between the humanity and divinity of Jesus Christ, and taught that, in giving birth to Christ, the Virgin Mary could not be spoken of as giving birth to God. Confirmation or Chrismation - the second sacrament of Christian initiation, the means by which the gift of the Holy Spirit conferred in baptism is "strengthened and deepened" by a sealing. Their history has been one of isolation from Church leadership while gathering frequently as a small group to strengthen one another (see Matthew 18:20 and Moroni 6:5).. In this course Dr. Calhoun helps the student understand the development of Christian thought and apply church history to contemporary ideas and issues. They are often called Ancient Oriental Churches. F our historic Patriarchal centers – Jerusalem, Antioch, Alexandria, and Rome – were established in the first century, and Constantinople in the fourth; yet all these five centers formed a cohesive whole of the Christian Church and were in full communion with each other. Some theologies consider this to be the outward sign of the inner "Baptism of the Holy Spirit," the special gifts (or charismata) of which may remain latent or become manifest over time according to God's will. Most liturgical and canonical practices vary between all these particular Churches constituting the Roman Catholic Church. The first great break in the Church followed this Council. It complies with Wikipedia’s Terms of Use and international Copyright law. He used information from previous Church Historian’s Office staff to retroactively compile this documentary history. Expressed positively, forgiveness of sins means bestowal of the sanctifying grace by which the baptized person shares the life of God. 1. Churches that claim this continuity include the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox churches, the Assyrian Church of the East, the Old Catholic churches and churches of the Anglican Communion. In others (such as the Anglican), clerical marriage is permissible as is the ordination of women and active homosexuals to the priesthood and episcopacy. He lived, loved and taught among humanity about 2000 years ago. From a handful of fishermen, tax collectors, and youthful troublemakers in an obscure province of Judea, the faith has spread over the globe to claim the loyalty of almost two thousand million inhabitants of our planet. (2:47) 3. "Final Anointing", as it still is among traditionalist Catholics. The Enlightenment, also known as the Age of Reason, was a time when man began touse his reason to discover the world, casting off the superstition and fear ofthe medieval world. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Catholicism is a vast term for the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies, it's liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, and religious people as a whole. A less extensive rupture occurred when, after the Roman Catholic Church's First Vatican Council, in which it officially proclaimed the dogma of papal infallibility, clusters of Catholics in the Netherlands and in German-speaking countries created the Old-Catholic (Altkatholische) Church. Take a Bible quiz to learn more about sin in the Bible. Some of the most prominent disciples of the apostles include: Saint Clement of Rome, fourth Bishop of Rome who was a disciple of Saint Peter the Apostle and was directly consecrated by him; Saint Ignatius of Antioch, third Bishop of Antioch who as a student of Saint John the Apostle; and Saint Polycarp, who was a Bishop of Smyrna and was also a disciple of Saint John, being ordained by him, It should be noted that there were several during the times of the Apostles who were considered to be heretics such as Simon Magus in Acts of the Apostles which “simony” an act of buying ecclesiastical offices is name after, Hymenaeus and Alexander in the Letters of Paul who is considered to be a proponent of an early form of Gnosticism, Followers of Marcion and followers of orthodox Christians were both persecuted by the Roman Emperors, but despite this, the two groups were in opposition from one another with one martyr going as far as confessing himself to be catholic to distinguish himself from the heretical movement just before his death, Gnostics such as the “Docetics” and “Manicheans” were a syncretic group who incorporated various systems of beliefs into one, The Second Council of Ephesus and the Synod in Hieria, although intended to be ecumenical councils, were repudiated by subsequent councils while the Council in Trullo is accepted by the Greek Churches only (now known as Eastern Orthodoxy) as being part of an extension of the previous two councils with councils subsequent to the Second Council of Nicaea are subject to debate, Other things discussed were; Easter, eunuchs, kneeling, Baptism by heretics, lapsed Christians, and other matters, Apollinarism was one of two forms of monophysitism and was an over-reaction to Arianism which itself was an over-reaction to Sabellianism, Nestorianism was an over-reaction to Apollinarism, Eutycheanism was an over-reaction to Nestorianism, Origen was also an early proponent of “universalism” where everyone will be brought into salvation regardless of their faith, It was during the Council ofTrullo that the Eastern Orthodox Christian theory of the “Pentarchy” formulated which would consist of; Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem, the hierarchy going in that order, The mutual excommunication does not imply that Constantinople excommunicated Rome and the whole of the West nor the other way around that Rome excommunicated Constantinople and the whole of the East, hence the complexity of the whole issue as well as the question of the validity of Humbert’s excommunication papers can also be questioned as Pope Leo IX of Rome whom he derived his authority from had died at the time, Other complications leading to further rifts includes; caesaropapism or the subjugation of the Church to civil authorities in the East, mandate of clerical celibacy of the West, the massacres of the Latins in 1182, imposition of Latin Patriarchs to Greek Patriarchates, capture of religious artifacts, attempted capture of Adrianople by the Latin Empire in 1205, and the destruction of the library of Constantinople by the Crusaders, The seventeenth ecumenical council of the Catholic Church was originally intended to be at Basel, but due to unrests, riots, and threats of invasions had to be moved to Ferrara and then Florence resulting in delays, Both Wycliffe and Hus are considered the predecessors of the Protestant Reformers with Wycliffe said to be the “morning star” of the reformation and Hus being the first actual reformer after Wycliffe and before Luther, Waldensians were the followers of PierreVaudès, or Peter Waldo, a lay preacher during the 12th century (making him one of the first reformed dissidents of the Catholic Church in the west)taughtpoverty and adherence to the Bible, which influenced the reformation alongside with the philosophical schools of; nominalism, modernism, and humanism, though the reformation are fundamentally different from these schools, Transubstantiation is a doctrine concerning the Eucharist, also known as Holy Communion, where the bread and wine is the actual body and blood of Christ after the presiding cleric gives blessing over it during mass or divine liturgy, Some radical reformers did not fit under the Anabaptist group as they professed anti-Trinitarian beliefs rejecting the Nicene christology, Among other things, the council also defined the canonical lists for the scripture as well as the seven sacraments, Contrary to popular beliefs, Henry was primarily motivated to break from Rome by what he believed as his right to have further influence within the Church as there was only one English Cardinal rather than purely getting a divorce from Catherine, The “Arminianismvs Calvinism” debate goes back as far as “Augustine vs Pelagius” debate, where Calvinism has influences from Augustine while Arminianism is mistaken to have been influenced by Pelagius though they have similarities, The Baptists were first labeled by the followers of the English Separatist pastor John Smyth, while he was in the Netherlands where he adopted many practices not too dissimilar from the Anabaptists despite his opposition towards their doctrines, Groups such as Christadelphians and Jehovah’s Witnesses have largely adopted the Christological doctrine of Arianism thus denying the pre-existence of the Son of God, The point from “Anglicanism” to “Calvinism” was known as the “Magisterial Reform” which meant they had the support of the state they were in while the point above towards the “Anabaptists” were known as the “Radical Reform” meaning they did not have the support of the state they were in resulting in their persecution, One of the most prominent group within the Old Catholics are known as the Union of Utrecht, who are in full communion with the Anglican Communion as well as having very similar practices with them, due to their affiliation with the Archbishop of Utrecht, who like the Archbishop of Canterbury in the Anglican Communion, is considered “first among equals” in the Union, The whole calendar controversy is in some ways linked with the whole ecumenical movement which some prominent groups, such as the monks in Mount Athos, reject saying that dialogues with heretics will result in the orthodoxy being tainted with heterodoxy, The Eastern Catholic Church or the “Uniate” were formally part of either the Assyrian, Eastern Orthodox, or the Oriental Orthodox Churches, but have left their mother churches to come into full communion with Rome while retaining their Eastern practices and as such the Eastern Catholic Church are hard to distinguish from their mother churches, The Eastern Orthodox believe in the theory of the “Pentarchy” where the five Patriarchs (Rome, Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem) are to rule the Church while the Oriental Orthodoxy rejects this theory instead accepting the original “Petrine sees” where the three Sees of Saint Peter (Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch) are in charge in regards to overall administration, which has traditionally also been accepted by the Catholic Church until recently, Another major issue within Protestantism is the split between the Conservatives/Traditionalists and the Progressives/Liberalists, where they differ on opinions such as abortion, homosexuality, women, et cetera, These are the Churches that were outside the Roman Empire, originally founded by St Thomas the Apostle, The books not accepted by the Jews and the Protestants which they label as the “Apocrypha” are labelled by the Catholics as “Deuterocanon” (to differentiate it from the other “Protocanon”) and by the Orthodox as “Anagignoskomena” which stands for “things that are read”, 1. When the Imperial capital changed to Constantinople, the influence of Rome was sometimes challenged. Catholicism – largest denomination of Christianity.Catholicism encompasses the body of the Catholic faith, its theologies and doctrines, its liturgical, ethical, spiritual, and behavioral characteristics, as well as a religious people as a whole. The history of Christianity includes some vastly different eras. The next break occured after the Council of Chalcedon (451). More broadly, it refers to many churches, including the Roman Catholic Church and others that are not in communion with it, claiming continuity with the Catholic Church before the separation into Greek and Eastern, or Latin and Western. Church history - extensive notes covering the period up through the Reformation. Ordination as a bishop makes one a member of the body that has succeeded to that of the Apostles. The bulk of these pages consist of notes from the Church History classes taughtin 1997-1999 at Community Bible Chapel, Richardson, Texas, USA. The fourth major division of the Church happened in the 16th century with the Protestant Reformation, followin which many parts of the Western Church either entirely rejected the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and became known as "Reformed" or "Protestant", or else repudiated Roman papal authority and followed decisions by the civil ruler in all religious matters. The words of Christ and the event of His saving Death and Resurrection were destined not only for According to the Bible, the first church organized itself 50 days after Jesus’s death on the Day of Pentecost—when the Holy Spirit was said to descend onto Jesus’s followers.Most of the first Christians were Jewish converts, and the church was centered in Jerusalem. 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